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What is Nanotechnology
The term Nanotechnology was introduced into practice in 1974 by Norio Taniguchi  who defined it as "production technology allowing to reach ultrahigh precision and ultrasmall sizes ... of appr. 1 nm ...".
Due to the book of Eric Drexler , in 1980s-1990s the creation and development of different devices from separate molecules were understood under the term Nanotechnology. The perspectives of Nanotechnology application were described as, e.g., creation of tiny autonomous nanorobots that could be dipped into human body and could find struck organs and repair them. Moreover Nanotechnology seemed to be the area of science. However another definition of Nanotechnology proposed by Albert Franks in 1987  is more true. Mr Franks defined Nanotechnology as "production with sizes and precision in the area of 0.1-100 nm".
Indeed, while "molecular machines" of Eric Drexler were created via formulas and computer modelling, there were steady increase of tradition technologies that came into the area of Nanotechnology because of the rise in their precision parameters. This can be illustrated by the development of microelectronics. Up-to-date microchips contain electronic elements with critical dimensions less then 100 nm. These microchips are manufactured with subnanometer accuracy. Microelectronic techniques also became the basis for creation of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). Accuracy requirements for MEMS production substantially exceed the level of 100 nm.
With regard to development and production of the machines. devices and tools for Nanotechnology we would focus on practical applications. Thus we would first of all interpret Nanotechnology as the technology itself, i.e. as "the collection of methods and techniques destined to produce, treat or process raw materials, semi-finished products or goods..." with dimensions or production tolerances at the level of 100 nm or even less. As far as our main interest is the scientific and technical activity (STA) in the area of Nanotechnology, we would distinguish and define the main areas of Nanotechnology STA that are shown at animation below.
First of all the following areas of Nanotechnology connected with final or intermediate products can be distinguished:
Also the areas connected to the manufacturing of the the products are to be included in Nanotechnology areas:
- Nanotechnology Facilities
- Nanotechnology Instruments.
Nanoscience (Nanoresearch) can be also defined as the area of Nanotechnology, i.e. the respective research connected with "production, treatment or processing of raw materials, semi-finished products or goods...". The area of Nanoresearch includes Theoretical and Computational Nanotechnology. Nanomeasuring Instruments used in Nanoresearch and Nanotechnology are the other area of Nanotechnology. They allow to adequately define Nanotechnology as a whole.
Nanoeducation is one of the main Nanotechnology areas. Nanoeducation includes general scientific and technical education as well as training of operators of Nanotechnology Facilities and Instruments. Nanoeducation is also aimed at raising awareness on Nanotechnology among the broad public as well as the creation of the appropriate world outlook allowing to easily perceive Nanotechnology achievements.
Furthermore, Nanotechnology areas include the issue connected to possible influence of Nanotechnology on the Environment, Health, and Safety, i.e. the so-called Environmental, Health, Safety (EHS) Nanotechnology.
NT-MDT supplies equipment for nearly all areas of STA in Nanotechnology – from nanotechnology facilities based on the Nanofab-100 platform to research probe nanolaboratories NTEGRA based on Scanning Probe Microscopy and educational SPM-based classes NanoEducator.
 Norio Taniguchi, "On the Basic Concept of 'NanoTechnology'" 1974 Proc. ICPE Tokyo, 2, pp. 18-23.
 K. Eric Drexler, "Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation" 1981 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 78, No. 9, pp. 5275-5278.
 Albert Franks, "Nanotechnology" 1987 J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 20, pp. 1442-1451.